The most basic part of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and Messiah (Christ). The title “Messiah” comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word “Christ”. Joshua is English for the Hebrew word Yeshua.
A depiction of Jesus and Mary, the Theotokos of Vladimir (12th century).
Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus was anointed by God as ruler and savior of all people. Christians also believe that Jesus’ coming was the fulfillment of prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian belief of the Messiah is much different than the contemporary Jewish concept. The main Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God. Through this, they believe they are given salvation and eternal life.
There have been many theological disagreements over the nature of Jesus over the first centuries of Christian history. But Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and “true God and true man.” Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pain and temptations of a mortal man, but he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and came back to life again. According to the Bible, “God raised him from the dead,” he ascended to heaven, is “seated at the right hand of the Father” and will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the Dead, the Last Judgment, and the final creation of the Kingdom of God.
The Gospels of Matthew and Luke say that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Only a little of Jesus’ childhood is written in the canonical gospels, but infancy gospels were popular in antiquity. However, the time of Jesus’ adulthood the week before his death is written much about in the gospels. Some of the Biblical writings of Jesus’ ministry are: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds.